If the casualty can't walk out and people with them cannot support/carry them out then it will be necessary to ask for help to evacuate the casualty. In the UK this will be via a 999 call (assuming phone signal is available. NB, the Emergency services number is 112 in most of Europe).


This mnemonic can be used to ensure that rescuers have enough information to effect the evacuation successfully.

  • M - Major incident declared. This is for scenes with numerous casualties, where local services have the potential to be overwhelmed
  • E - Exact location. As a minimum a grid reference should be given. This can be supplemented with additional information to help rescuers find the casualty.
  • T - Type of incident. What happened (if known) and what injuries/illness does the casualty have?
  • H - Hazards. Rescuers who become further casualties will not be able to help. For instance near-by power lines are a hazard to helicopters & animals coul dpose a hazard to rescuers walking in.
  • A - Access. Recommended way of reaching the casualty.
  • N - Number of casualties. There may be more than one casualty. If this is the case the number of casualties in each of the triage categories should be given (e.g. 0 immmediate, 1 urgent, 3 delayed).
  • E - Emergency services on scene and required. Who do you need?


This mnemonic is used to structure clinical handover to the rescuer:

  • Mechanism of injury
  • Injuries identified
  • Signs (vital signs)
  • Treatment (& timings and responses to treatment)

For example: "This is John, who fell about two metres while climbing and sustained a closed fracture of the right tib and fib. His heart rate is 87 and his resp rate is 21. I have imporvised a splint and circulation and sensation in the foot remain intact. He slipped about 40 minutes ago."

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